This blog was written in conjunction with Kavita Nanda of FHI 360 and originally posted here on the K4Health website. It is republished here with permission. Disclaimer: Dr. Nanda and I were both directly involved in work on the 2014 WHO HC-HIV guidance and the USAID/PEPFAR briefer on hormonal contraception and antiretroviral medications.
Among all people living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries, 52% are women (57% in sub-Saharan Africa). Most are of reproductive age, and many may wish to use a hormonal contraceptive method to prevent unintended pregnancy, such as oral contraceptive pills, injectables, implants, or hormonal intrauterine devices (IUDs). Access to highly effective contraception has other health benefits as well; it reduces maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, and is a necessary component in ending mother-to-child HIV transmission.
Therefore, an increasingly important issue is whether certain ART regimens are expected to have drug interactions when used with certain hormonal contraceptive methods.
In July 2014, based upon comprehensive systematic reviews and an expert consultation, the World Health Organization released updated guidance on hormonal contraception and HIV. One component of this guidance focuses on potential drug interactions between various hormonal contraceptive methods and ART. Subsequently, the Office of Population and Reproductive Health at USAID and the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) developed a technical brief on drug interactions with technical assistance from FHI 360.
The current guidance notes that women taking ART are eligible for all hormonal contraceptive methods, but special consideration might be necessary for women using some hormonal methods (combined hormonal methods, progestogen-only pills, norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN), or levonorgestrel (LNG) and etonogestrel (ETG) implants) with certain ART regimens (specifically those containing efavirenz or nevirapine, as well as some protease inhibitors). These combinations are ranked as medical eligibility criteria (MEC) Category 2: The advantages of using that specific contraceptive method (in combination with those specific antiretroviral drugs) generally outweigh the theoretical or proven risks (in this case, because of potentially reduced contraceptive efficacy). For specific details on these potential interactions, interested readers should refer to the documents linked above. For more information on MEC Category meanings, readers should refer to the WHO guidance.
Limited available data suggest that ART efficacy is not impacted by use of hormonal contraceptive methods, and limited data suggest that combined oral contraceptive pills, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA, sometimes called Depo Provera), and implants are also unlikely to have an impact on ARTside effects or toxicity.
This raises an interesting situation with regard to DMPA. Scientific uncertainty exists as to whether DMPA is causally associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition among HIV-negative women. However, when used by women living with HIV who are on ART, DMPA is not expected to have any drug interactions with ART (unlike oral contraceptive pills and possibly contraceptive implants). Furthermore, ART use greatly reduces the risk of transmission to a sexual partner, which would minimize possible concerns (based on limited data) about DMPA and female-to-male HIV transmission. Therefore, while the scientific community debates how to more definitively assess the impact of DMPA on risk of HIV acquisition in HIV-negative women, including the possibility of a randomized trial, DMPA will likely remain an important option for women living with HIV and using ART, both for their own health and autonomy, and also to reduce perinatal HIV. Other contraceptive options, such as hormonal or non-hormonal IUDs, where appropriate, can also provide important benefits for women on ART.
The global health community must enhance efforts to better understand potential drug interactions between various ART regimens and various methods of hormonal contraception. More than 18 million women currently living with HIV deserve clear, accurate information on which to base lifesaving health care decisions.